Why would a wealthy nation reduce the chance for children to play musical instruments?

I recently left a teaching job I loved because the council had implemented a new policy: charging a fee for instrumental music lessons in schools, that used to be free. Instrumental staff argued that it was a backward step; the council argued that it could improve the instrumental music service! The council needed to save money; instrumental staff argued that the amount they would have to charge to make their saving was prohibitive. The council offered concessions for those on low incomes and free lessons for those receiving free school meals (distracting us from the fact that state education should be free for every child). That’s a fair deal, they reckoned. But, we argued, that doesn’t take into account that parents firstly have to acknowledge that they can’t afford to pay and secondly fill in forms and show proof of their income. Some people won’t want to admit they can’t pay. Some people get stuck at ‘filling in forms’. What’s more, not all parents are aware of or have time to care about the value of learning to play an instrument. About one-third of my pupils were withdrawn from lessons by their parents as soon as the policy came into effect and the ethos of equality in the provision of instrumental music lessons in schools was destroyed in favour of a market driven service. It may save the council ‘a drop in the ocean’. A reduction in the number of pupils in some areas has led to some surreptitious cutting of jobs: posts not filled, total hours reduced and staff redeployed and overstretched.

I believe there should be more provision of free instrumental lessons in schools. We need more staff, so more children can have lessons and we should include non-western instruments. Imagine how that would improve the appreciation of our nation’s cultural diversity if children were offered lessons on instruments such as the Indian sitar, the Chinese erhu or the Arabic oud? I believe the benefits to society, to health and particularly mental health, justify the cost of instrumental lessons on moral grounds. If it has to be justified economically then the cost of improving children’s future health, education and well-being through music would balance the overall cost in the long run: reducing the pressure on the NHS, police and social services in the future.

But, apparently, each department has its own budget and savings have to be made.

We are a wealthy but stupid nation. Let’s look at the bigger picture, let’s join the dots: somewhere out there, there’s somebody who can do the sums, can we fix this now please?

Thank you for the Music, Mum

I had a wonderful mum who filled my childhood with music and happy times. This article and playlist are a tribute to her on what would have been her 88th birthday.

I have often seen queries online from parents wondering how to get their child to like classical music. My mum introduced me to music in a subtle way so that I was a fan before I knew it. She had the answer and this is what she did.

It began with dance. Trained as ballet dancer and teacher, she knew the repertoire that would have my sister and me twirling round the living room. Tchaikovsky: music from ‘Sleeping Beauty’, ‘Swan Lake’ and this Waltz from the ‘Nutcracker Suite’. I loved the sound of the harp swirling up and down, the bubbling clarinet notes and then when the sweeping melody on the strings came, I was spinning with joy.

Track 1: Waltz from ‘The Nutcracker Suite’.

As children, Mum protected us from scary, nasty things so we had no idea that the story behind this next piece involved frightening trolls. In the Hall of the Mountain King from the ‘Peer Gynt Suite’ by Greig had us stepping around the room on tiptoe, hiding behind the settee, jumping up and then getting more and more boisterous as the music increased in speed and volume.

Track 2: In the Hall of the Mountain King from the ‘Peer Gynt Suite’.

Music that made us laugh was a also big hit and we thought this Clog Dance from the ballet ‘La Fille Mal Gardée’ was very funny – especially the bit that sounds like slipping on a banana skin and then later, when the sound of the clogs tapping seems to get all mixed up.

Track 3: Clog Dance from ‘La Fille Mal Gardée’.

When she became a primary school teacher, Mum had responsibility for music and dance at the school my sister and I went to so we experienced the music at home and at school. Walking into school assembly we were accompanied by music such as Holst’s ‘The Planets’ or Prokoviev’s ‘Romeo and Juliet’.

Track 4: Jupiter from ‘The Planets’.

Track 5:  The Knights’ Dance from ‘Romeo and Juliet’.

Her friend and colleague was a drama specialist and together they put on school plays. Musical soundtracks were drawn from Stravinsky’s music for the ballet ‘Petrouchka’ or ‘The Firebird’, Britten’s Sea Interludes from ‘Peter Grimes’ or Kodaly’s ‘Hary Janos Suite’: music that had character and captured the imagination or had exciting rhythms and/or enticing melodies.

Track 6: Danse Russe from ‘Petrouchka’.

Track 7: Sea Interludes from ‘Peter Grimes’.

Track 8: Hungarian Dance from ‘Hary Janos Suite’.

Mum directed the school choir and when we went in for a music festival singing This Little Babe from Britten’s ‘A Ceremony of Carols’, I remember having to concentrate hard when the music went into two parts and marvelling at the sound created by the echoing effect of this canon.

Track 9: This Little Babe from ‘A Ceremony of Carols’.

The structure of music interested Mum and when she taught dance she was also teaching us to listen. To the second movement of Bartok’s ‘Concerto for Orchestra’ (known as the ‘Game of Pairs’), she asked our class to dance in twos, choosing which instrumental line to follow: you could be the bassoons, the oboes, the clarinets, the flutes, the pizzicato strings, bowed strings, trumpets or trombones but could only move when your instrument was playing.

Track 10: Movement II. Giuoco delle coppie from the ‘Concerto for Orchestra’ by Bartok.

Mum loved discovering new pieces and when we listened to the Nine Lessons and Carols from King’s College, Cambridge, she was always excited to hear the latest addition to the repertoire. When she first heard the Shepherd’s Pipe Carol by John Rutter, she loved the bit where the beat changes and then changes back again. She bought the music and next Christmas we were singing it at school. One year, we went to Cambridge, to the Chapel at King’s College to hear the service. The music was wonderful: the harmonies, the descants and the organ playing. And after all that uplifting music, we came out into the twilight as the snow was beginning to fall. It felt magical and remains a special memory.

Track 11: Shepherd’s Pipe Carol by John Rutter.

Music was like an exciting discovery with Mum. She told us about her music teacher at school in Hendon, London, taking her to orchestral rehearsals with great conductors and how she was told to listen to the bass line or middle parts and not just follow the tune. She revelled in the clever compositional techniques like the melody in Rachmaninov’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini which, towards the second half of the piece, is turned upside down and made into a new melody.

Track 12: Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini by Rachmaninov.

Or the two tunes played at the same time in the last movement of the St Paul’s Suite by Holst.

Track 13: St Paul’s Suite.

She loved the music of English composers: Purcell, Holst, Vaughan-Williams, Walton and Britten, having heard many of their works in concerts, during the vibrant cultural resurgence of post-war Britain. She talked of the excitement of attending concerts at the Festival of Britain at London’s Southbank. I found a programme that she had kept from one of the first performances of Britten’s opera Billy Budd from 1951.

Perhaps in that spirit of the Festival of Britain, there wasn’t any elitism about this musical education: she felt that everyone should have access to great music. She told me about a boy in school who’d asked her: “Where do you find all this music?”. He’d never heard anything like it at home.

Track 14: The Cuckoo from ‘Folk Songs of the Seasons’ by Vaughan Williams.

Track 15: Popular Song from Facade by Walton.

But we were exposed to an eclectic mix too. We sang along to Pinky and Perky on the TV, and had records of the soundtracks from musicals we’d seen at the pictures: we sang along to  A Spoonful of Sugar from ‘Mary Poppins’, My Favourite Things from ‘The Sound of Music’ and I could have danced all Night from ‘My Fair Lady’.

Mum had the record Time Out by Dave Brubeck and we loved listening to that and a record of the jazz trumpeter Dizzie Gillespie. And we loved The Swingle Singers especially when they sang Bach.

Track 16: Allegro from Brandenburg Concerto no.3 by Bach: The Swingle Singers.

My sister and I went for piano lessons, (our brother resisted and taught himself the guitar and drums) and so Mum hardly got a look in at the piano but when she did, this is the piece she used to play: Mouvement Perpetuel by Poulenc. It sounded lively and jolly to me as a child. I didn’t notice the rather dark undertone that I hear when I listen to it now.

Track 17: Mouvement Perpétuel by Poulenc.

When I went secondary school, Mum encouraged me take up the cello – from the back of her wardrobe she took the cello she had been given as a 21st birthday present and said I could learn to play it. So I did, without realising what a gift that was and how it would become my instrument and a major part of my life.

When I was 15 Mum took me to a performance of Bach’s St Matthew Passion in Manchester Cathedral. The timbre of the orchestra and solo singers was startlingly beautiful in that resonant acoustic and when the chorus joined in it was such a glorious sound I was quite overwhelmed. I remember hearing a viola da gamba for the first time and wondering what it was, realising it wasn’t a cello, although it looked similar. I loved its raw sound. At the end of the first half we went home for tea and then Mum asked me if I’d like to go back for the second half. I couldn’t understand why she was asking me, of course I wanted to go back for the second half. Speaking to her years later I was telling her what a powerful effect that music had on me and she said I had been really quiet and she didn’t know if I had liked it or not! I think I had been completely spellbound.

Track 18 – 19 From the St. Matthew Passion by Bach

A few years later Mum was lecturing in education with responsibility for dance at a college of education, working in the field of contemporary dance and we had moved to a cottage in Lancashire. Music was our evenings’ and weekend’s entertainment: we listened to Mum’s records of Copland’s Rodeo, Shostakovich’s Jazz Suite and Satie’s Gymnopodies (in a version for classical guitar).

Track 20: Buckaroo Holiday from ‘Rodeo’ by Copland.

Track 21: Dance 1 from ‘Jazz Suite’ No.2 by Shostakovich.

Track 22: Gymnopodie no.1 by Satie.

She continued to play music that made us laugh. We thought the beginning of Divertissement by Ibert sounded funny with its clashing chords on the piano.

Track 23: Divertissement by Ibert.

As a teenager I started to collect some records of my own: Sibelius Symphonies, Elgar’s Cello Concerto with Jaqueline du Pré as soloist and Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos.

My love for music led to a career in music but more importantly, immense joy from the music I have heard or played and continue to do so. It’s because of Mum’s enthusiasm for music and the way she carefully nurtured an interest during my early years that music became central to my life.

The last piece in this tribute is by Mum’s favourite composer: Ravel. This music is full of poignancy for me as it arouses a complex range of emotions beneath its apparent simplicity.

Track 24: Adagio Assai from the Piano Concerto in G by Ravel.

To hear all the music in full go to my playlist: Thank you for the Music, Mum.

 

 

Those Who Can – Teach!

A couple of years into my first cello-teaching job, I went to visit my former cello teacher in Harrogate: Pauline Dunn. I was trying out a new cello and wanted her opinion. When I finished playing to her, aware that I was out of practice, I was taken aback when she said: “I like your bowing.”

“Well you taught me how to bow”, I said, but she pointed out that my bowing was more flexible, relaxed and producing a better sound than the last time she had heard me. I wondered how it could have improved as my cello practice had just been ticking over since my final degree exam and I had spent most days teaching beginners. Then she really surprised me, saying: “it’s because you’ve been teaching”.

It was then that I started to realise that teaching had reciprocal benefits: all that time thinking about the bow hold, analysing and explaining the mechanics of coaxing a sound from a string and showing children how to practise, had had the effect of improving my own bowing technique!

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The more I had thought about how to facilitate my students’ learning, the more I had developed as a musician, consolidating my knowledge and skills. This ‘self improvement’ effect forms the basis of a useful teaching technique: ask a student to teach another student how to play a particular phrase and it is actually of benefit to both students. Have you ever experienced explaining something and afterwards thinking: “I didn’t know I knew that until I explained it”?

So for anyone thinking that teaching is going to harm their performing career, think again. You may find it has the opposite effect and enhances your musical performance.

Believe in your students’ potential and they will blossom. Enjoy teaching and you will blossom too!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cello Mad!

When I first started teaching cello in a primary school, I decided to start a cello ensemble so the children could experience the fun of playing music together. Conducting the cello ensemble was actually more fun than making small talk in the rather staid staff room at lunch time. I was surprised by the reaction of the deputy head who told me that I shouldn’t work through my break and that I was ‘cello mad’!

“Well, what’s wrong with that”, I thought, “I am the cello teacher, of course I’m ‘cello mad’!” Since that day, I have always encouraged my students to play in cello ensembles as it is a great way to give them the melodic lines that they don’t always get in other types of ensemble. Soon after I started teaching, in one of my secondary schools, I had a wonderfully musical group of pupils who played well in tune and beautifully in time together. I arranged some pieces for them to perform in a school concert and was feeling really pleased with their sensitive interpretation. My colleague warned me: “You won’t always get pupils to play like this. They are quite exceptional.” He was right, they were exceptional, but that didn’t stop me starting many more ensembles some of which turned out to be just as accomplished.

Whether they are accomplished or not isn’t the point though. Feeling that thrill and the camaraderie that comes from playing music together is what it is about. What can work really well is to have an ensemble that includes all the cello and double bass pupils in a school. The less experienced players can play an easy part but still have the fun of joining a big cello/bass family and being part of a lovely, lush sound.

We are in good company: there’s ‘The 12 cellists of the Berlin Philharmonic’ who have produced several CDs of lush sounding arrangements for cellos, as have ‘The London Cello Sound’ (made up of 40 cellists from four London orchestras). There are countless amateur and professional cello ensembles on You Tube including the smallest group possible: two. The internationally famous Croatian duo ‘2Cellos’: Luka Šulić and Stjepan Hauser play classical, pop, rock and film music in performances that combine virtuosity with light-heartedness. Here they are playing music from the film Pirates of the Caribbean. Some of their arrangements are available to buy and can be played by at least four cellos by splitting the double-stopping in each part.

From the smallest ensemble to one of the largest: cellist and composer Giovani Sollima gathers an ensemble of 100 cellos. When I first saw Sollima with his various ensembles of cellists on You Tube I felt I had found a kindred spirit. If an internationally famous composer and cellist can have fun playing alongside his ensemble of students then so can I. There are silly moments in some of the performances, including one where they confront that annoying dilemma of how to turn a page whilst playing the cello. Sollima makes a humorous feature of this, as they all stop playing and turn their pages at once – noisily! Watching these clips, I think Sollima would certainly qualify as ‘cello mad’!

For any other ‘cello mad’ people out there, here’s my list of great cello ensemble music:

  • Bachianas Brasilieras by the Brazilian composer Hector Villa-Lobos who was also a cellist. No. 1 is scored for an orchestra of cellos and no. 5 for soprano and 8 cellos. Here’s the first part of no 5:
  • Fratres for 4, 8 or 12 cellos by Estonian composer Arvo Pärt. There are many versions of this piece which makes use of harmonics to produce bell like effects.
  • Concerto in G minor for 5 cellos by Joseph Bodin de Boismortier (Publisher: Kunzelmann). This is one of three Concerto Grossi, with cellos 1 – 3 playing concertino parts and the other two forming the ripieno. I have used this with a school cello group which had 3 advanced players. All parts are in tenor clef.gm1216.jpg
  • Violoncelles, vibrez! by Sollima for 8 cellos. It is named after the words his cello teacher, Antonio Janigro, used to say to his students: instructing them to make their cellos vibrate. There are two solo parts, with lots of slides to the end of the fingerboard and there are several versions: with string orchestra or cello ensemble of 4, 6 or 8 cellos. Here it is with Sollima himself and 100 Cellos:
  • Concerto in G minor for 2 cellos and string orchestra (or piano reduction) by Antonio Vivaldi. This is an exciting piece with lots of imitation, great fun for two advanced cellists.
  • Sonata in G minor (Opus 2 no. 8 ) for 2 cellos and harpsichord/piano by Handel. This is a gorgeous cello-friendly piece.
  • Violin Phase by Steve Reich. For people who have no friends there’s no need to miss out on the ensemble playing experience! Here’s a video of Steve Reich’s Violin Phase arranged for cello. The skill required to play this music is immense in terms of concentration as one part goes out of time with the next creating that phased effect.
  • Cello Counterpoint for 8 cellos, a fiendishly difficult piece by Steve Reich which you can play with a soundtrack of the other parts already recorded.

Obviously any music can be arranged for cello ensemble and if you make arrangements yourself, you can tailor them to the level of playing of each player, adding double bass parts if required: perfect for school ensembles.

Here’s a couple of examples of effective arrangements for cello ensemble: firstly, the Prague Cello Quartet with The Phantom of the Opera:

And the Waltz from Shostakovich’s Jazz Suite played by Cellostrada.

The following pieces can be played by an intermediate school group:

  • Pavane by Arbeau arranged by Anita Hewitt-Jones (Musicland). My students love playing this piece.
  • Three Pieces for Cello Ensemble arranged by Robin Erskine (Lomond Music). Another favourite amongst my students this album contains three pieces: Mattachins, The Handsome Butcher and Little Brown Jug, in easy arrangements.
  • The Scots Cello Book 1 edited by David Johnson has five short tunes arranged for cello duet and four tunes for cello quartet.
  • Early Pieces for two and three cellos, edited by PEJTSIK Arpad (Editio Music Budapest). This album contains lots of short attractive pieces by various composers including Purcell, Telemann, J.S.Bach, Couperin, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
  • Four Pieces for Four Cellos arranged by Doreen Smith (OUP). A very useful book with attractive arrangements of pieces by Byrd, Mozart, Tchaikovsky and Berlioz.
  • Deux Danses by Bruce Fraser (Lomond Music). Two exciting movements for cello quartet.
  • 18 Duets for Two Cellos by Bartok (Universal Edition).
  • Renaissance Tunes arranged by Marco Pallis (Thames). For two cellos.

The following are for groups with three players above grade 5 standard:

  • The Entertainer by Scott Joplin (Kunzelmann) arranged for four cellos.
  • Canon in D by Pachelbel arranged by Aaron Williams (Ricordi). One person has to volunteer to play the ‘ground bass’ – the same four bars over and over. The other three parts are in tenor clef but could be transcribed into bass clef.

The following pieces are written with a dedicated double bass part.

  • 6 Sonatas for 3 cellos and double bass by Wagenseil. (Doblinger).
  • Duetto for cello and bass by Rossini (Yorke Edition).
  • Duet in G minor for cello and double bass by Cherubini (Music Unlimited).

For younger players:

  • Threes and Fours by Sheila Nelson (Boosey and Hawkes).
  • Lollipops (Duets) by Anita Hewitt-Jones (Musicland).

Click here for a playlist of cello ensemble music.